MAJOR PEST OF MANGO IN NEPAL:
|SN||COMMON NAME||SCIENTIFIC NAME||FAMILY|
|1.||Mango hopper||Idioscopus niveosparsus||Cicadellidae|
|2.||Mango fruit fly||Bactrocera dorsalis||Tephritidae|
|3.||Mango stem borer||Batocera rufomaculata||Cerambycidae|
|4.||Mango shoot gall maker||Apsylla cistellata||Psyllidae|
|5.||Mango mealy bug||Drosicha mangiferae||Margamdidae|
|6.||Mango leaf gall maker||Procontarinea matteiana||Cecidomydiidae|
|7.||Mango stone weevil||Stenochaetus mangiferae||Curculionidae|
|8.||Bark eating caterpillar||Inderbela spp||Pyralidae|
|9.||Mango slug caterpillar||Latoia lepida||Limacodidae|
|10.||Red ant||Oecophyla smaragdina||Formicidae|
|11.||Fruit sucking moth||Othreis fullonia||Sphengidae|
|12.||Mango leaf weber||Orthaga spp||Pyralidae|
Order: Hemiptera (Sucking type insects) that left honey dew
This is green color (adult hopper)
It has wedge shape body structure. Head is wide while tail is tapering. With the help of sickle shape ovipositor, it makes a scratch in tender leaf where laying of egg takes place. About in 3 days, egg hatches. The nymphal period is aaaaaaa having 4 stages. 1st nymphal stage is yellowish brown color. 2nd stage is brown, 3rd stage is yellowish green and last stage is green. Early stage has partial developed wing while late stage has well developed wings. It has 3 pairs of legs. Last 2 legs are thick so movement is not in straight line i.e, diagonal movement.
Nymph and adult are damaging stage. Life-cycle is too short: 15-20 days. 10-12 life-cycle in a year. 1,000 nymph and adult simultaneously attack new flushes and inflorescence. In sever infestation plant become yellow and later stage get wilt.
– Premature of fruit
– Low flowering and fruiting
– Use of the light trap @ 1 trap/ha
– High density planting should be avoided because problem is high so timely training and pruning is also necessary
– Use of the systematic pesticide in every evening time
Mango mealy bug:
(mealy means white substance)
Mark of identification:
Body color is crimson red which is covered by white powdery like substances from the outside so it is called mealy bug.
The male has 1-pair of wing, female are wingless. Male dies after 1-2 days of mating whereas female die after laying eggs. Mating takes place in aerial plant parts and female moves towards the soil to lay eggs. After 2-3 month of hatching of the egg takes place and new nymph moves towards aerial part of the plants.
Nymphal period: 2-3 weeks. Damaging stages: nymph and adults
Nature of damage:
Both nymph and adult suck the sap from tender parts of the plant; secrete the honeydew where sooty mold is developed.
Disease resistant of the infected plant is drastically reduced due to vigor-loss.
– Use of the greasy band about 10-15 cm width in the tree trunk above 15cm of the soil surface
– To prevent the migration of the female into the soil and hatches new young-ones from the soil to aerial parts of plant
– Use of systematic type of pesticide
Mango fruit fly:
– It has one pair of true wings. The female has pointed or sharp wedge abdomen whereas male has round or circular shape abdomen.
– The size of the male is smaller than female.
– The body color of the fruit fly is radish brown whereas maggots are white in color.
– The sharp ovipositor of female puncture the tissue of tender bulb or base of the inflorescence or base of the fruit or growing twigs.
– Hatching of the egg takes place after 1-2 weeks
– The new hatched maggots consume the internal content of the fruit where 2nd infestation takes place and fruit starts to rotten.
– About 3-4 different stage maggot stages have been reported. The total duration of maggot is 3-4 weeks.
– It takes about 1 month to complete one life-cycle; 4-5 generation is completed in a year.
– Pupation takes place inside the rotten fruit and sometimes even in the fruit that has been dropped in soil.
Maggots and adults:
The sharp ovipositor of the female punctures the fruit in tender stage from where rotting starts at the time of fruit development.
After hatching, the maggots consume the internal tissue from where decaying takes place from which fruit gets drop.
– Collection of the infested fruit and keeping it in the water bucket.
– Complete field santitation
– Use of methyl-eugenol (it is used to attrack only fruit fly of fruit)
– Use of the molasses with malathion in any branch of the tree. Here, molasses attrack insects but malathion on contact kill the pest and fall into the soil due to death. (use malathion @ 2ml/lit of water)
Mango stem borer:
Robust body, long leg, long antenna, hard elytra
– Lay egg on bark
– After 1-2 weeks of egg laying, hatching takes place
– The new emergence larvae which has strong mandible enters into the stem by making tunnel and damage plant
– The infestation of stem borer can easily be identified by observing the saw dust around the tunnel or hole.
– A typical sound (audible sound) can also be observe at borer infected plant
– About 3-4 month: larval(grub) period
– Pupal period: 1 month
– Pupation takes place inside the stem by making fibrous cocoon.
– The cocoon which is made by wrapping the saw dust of wood.
– Pouring the kerosene or petroleum oil drop in the hole
– Jerking of the hole, tunnel with the help of long stem
– Plugging the hole
– Cutting infected branches
– The larva which is easily infected by a kind of entomopathogenic fungi which is Metarrhizium anisopliae(green muscardin fungi)